References & Reading

  • Reading on "Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants in the Intensive Care Unit: An Evidence-based Review" By Ruth M. Kleinpell, PhD, RN, ACNP, FCCM; E. Wesley Ely, MD, MPH, FCCM; Robert Grabenkort, PA, MMSc, FCCM
    Link to PDF
  • US News and World Report, "Soul of a Surgeon" By Richard Selzer, M.D. 7/12/04
    Link to Site

Reading on the Eighty Hour work week for Resident Physicians:

  • Herrick, T "As Residents Sleep" Clinician News 7(3):1, 13-15, May 2003
  • MJ Niederee et al. "Significant alterations in the current design & structure al surgical
    training programs will be required to meet the ACGME guidelines". Arch. Surgery
    2003; 138:663-71

For those exploring an exciting career as a surgical PA:

  • "Opportunities in Physician Assistant Careers" by T.J. Sacks
  • "Getting into the PA School of your Choice" by Andrew J. Rodican
  • "Kernel in the Pod: The Adventures of a "Midlevel" Clinician." by J. Michael Jones

For the Experienced surgical PA:

  • "Kernel in the Pod: The Adventures of a "Midlevel" Clinician." by J. Michael Jones
  • "Physician Assistants in American Medicine" by R Hooker and J. Cawley

On the Cost effectiveness of the surgical PA:

  • Druss et al. "Trends in care by non-physician clinicians in the US" NEJM
    2003: 348;130-7 Review- A medical expenditure survey, Administered by agency
    for healthcare research & quality.
  • Lin Sx, Hoocker et al. "NP's and PAs in hospital out patient departments" Nursing
    Economics PAs & NP's represent a cost-effective strategy.

Surgical PAs help reduce the surgical workload:

  • R Gates et al The American Surgeon, May 2003 Volume 69 #5 page 367:
    "More than 1/2 of those survied stated they would not encourage a young person to
    pursue a career in medicine".Blumm, R and Condit, C
  • "Surgical Physician Assistants Help Solve Contemporary Problems." Bulletin of the American College of Surgeon's June 2003, p. 14-18 Sheldon GF
  • "Great Expectations: The 21st century health workforce" AM J. Surg.
    Jan. 2003 185:35-41 Author suggests PAs will provide many essential services

On the surgical PAs scope of practice:

  • Gunneson et al. "US assisted percutaneous liver biopsy reformed by PAs AMJ Gastroent 2002:97:1472-5" The PA obtained adeel tissue 99.8%. Complications requiring hospitalization were 0.6%.
  • Lee, et. al. "Survey on Utilization of Nonsurgeon Practitioners in Cardiothoracic Surgery"
  • Surgical PA Journal, November 2000 (vol. 6 #11) Marsters, C "Pneumothorax as a Complication of Central Venous Cannulation Performed by PAs"
  • Surgical Physician Assistant Journal March 2000: Vol6 #3. The complication rate was 0.57%.
  • Dubaybo, BA "The Role of Physician Assistant's in Critical care Units" Chest; 1991; 99, p. 89-91.

History of the Surgical Physician Assistant:

  • Heineich, J "The Physician Assistant as resident on the Surgical Service"
    Archives of Surgery. 1980; 115: p. 310-314

Marketing the Profession:

  • Jiorle, L "Going it Alone" Clinician News 5(7):1, 14-15, July 2001

General Physician Assistant information:

  • Dinitz, M "Nonphysician Practitioners at Work" Oncology Issues 18(5):28-29,
    January 2003
  • J Mittman, Cuwels, Fern. "PAs in the United States" British Medical Journal. 2002:
    325:485-7 Great overview of the PA Profession. Great to read before an interview
    to PA School.