References & Reading

Reading on "Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants in the Intensive Care Unit: An Evidence-based Review"
     By Ruth M. Kleinpell, PhD, RN, ACNP, FCCM; E. Wesley Ely, MD, MPH, FCCM; Robert Grabenkort, PA, MMSc, FCCM Link:
     http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/documents/CAPNAH/files/NP%20and%20PAs%20in%20the%20intensive%20care%20unit.pdf

US News and World Report, "Soul of a Surgeon"
     By Richard Selzer, M.D. 7/12/04 Link:
     http://www.usnews.com/usnews/health/hosptl/articles/12surgeon.htm

Reading on the Eighty Hour work week for Resident Physicians:

     Herrick, T "As Residents Sleep" Clinician News 7(3):1, 13-15, May 2003
     MJ Niederee et al.  "Significant alterations in the current design & structure al surgical
              training programs will be required to meet the ACGME guidelines".  Arch. Surgery
              2003; 138:663-71

For those exploring an exciting career as a surgical PA:

     "Opportunities in Physician Assistant Careers" by T.J. Sacks
     "Getting into the PA School of your Choice" by Andrew J. Rodican
     "Kernel in the Pod: The Adventures of a "Midlevel" Clinician." by J. Michael Jones

For the Experienced surgical PA:

     "Kernel in the Pod: The Adventures of a "Midlevel" Clinician." by J. Michael Jones
     "Physician Assistants in American Medicine" by R Hooker and J. Cawley

On the Cost effectiveness of the surgical PA:

     Druss et al. "Trends in care by non-physician clinicians in the US" NEJM
              2003: 348;130-7 Review- A  medical expenditure survey, Administered by agency
              for healthcare research & quality.
     Lin Sx, Hoocker et al.  "NP's and PAs in hospital out patient departments" Nursing
              Economics PAs & NP's represent a cost-effective strategy.

Surgical PAs help reduce the surgical workload:

     R Gates et al The American Surgeon, May 2003 Volume 69 #5 page 367:
          "More than 1/2 of those survied stated they would not encourage a young person to
           pursue a career in medicine".
     Blumm, R and Condit, C "Surgical Physician Assistants Help Solve Contemporary
            Problems."  Bulletin of the American College of Surgeon's June 2003, p. 14-18
     Sheldon GF "Great Expectations: The 21st century health workforce"  AM J. Surg.
              Jan. 2003 185:35-41  Author suggests PAs will provide many essential services

On the surgical PAs scope of practice:

     Gunneson et al. "US assisted percutaneous liver biopsy reformed by PAs AMJ
              Gastroent 2002:97:1472-5" The PA obtained adeel tissue 99.8%. Complications
              requiring hospitalization were 0.6%.
     Lee, et. al. "Survey on Utilization of Nonsurgeon Practitioners in Cardiothoracic Surgery"
               Surgical PA Journal, November 2000 (vol. 6 #11)
    Marsters, C "Pneumothorax as a Complication of Central Venous Cannulation
              Performed by PAs" Surgical Physician Assistant Journal  March 2000: Vol6 #3. 
              The complication rate was 0.57%.
    Dubaybo, BA et.al. "The Role of Physician Assistant's in Critical care Units" Chest;
              1991; 99, p. 89-91.

History of the Surgical Physician Assistant:

     Heineich, J et.al. "The Physician Assistant as resident on the Surgical Service"
              Archives of Surgery. 1980; 115: p. 310-314

Marketing the Profession:

     Jiorle, L "Going it Alone" Clinician News 5(7):1, 14-15, July 2001

General Physician Assistant  information:

     Dinitz, M "Nonphysician Practitioners at Work" Oncology Issues 18(5):28-29,
              January 2003
     J Mittman, Cuwels, Fern.  "PAs in the United States" British Medical Journal.   2002:
               325:485-7 Great overview  of the PA Profession.  Great to read before an interview
              to PA School.

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